Abnormal Psych

Study Guide, Chapter 4
Note: This is but a guide. There may be questions on the exam that are not covered in this guide. All lectures, video clips and the text are fair game for the exam. READ YOUR BOOK. The best answers are answers you have found in the text.

1. How are fear and anxiety different
Fear is in response to a serious threat while anxiety is in response to a vague threat
2. What class of mental disorders is the most common in the U.S.
Anxiety disorders
3. What are the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) How common is it Is it more common among men or women The young or the elderly How is frequency related to ethnicity
Sleep disturbance, restless, irritability, fatigue. Common in western society, 3% of population show symptoms in a given year. 2 to 1 women to men. Usually appears in adolescence but more common in elderly. Related to income and poverty which is related to race.
4. Be familiar with the different perspectives (Socio cultural, Psychodynamic, etc) of the etiology of GAD. Also be familiar with the research supporting these perspectives.
Sociocultural- develop in people in dangerous social conditions
psychodynamic- all children experience certain anxiety but can be overrun by neurotic or moral anxiety which sets the stage for GAD
humanisitic- anxiety happens when people stop looking at themselves realistically and honestly.
Cognitive- dysfunctional ways of thinking, excessive worry
slides 4-7
5. What is the metacognitive theory The intolerance of uncertainty theory Avoidance theory Do the data support these theories Do people with GAD recognize that their fears are extreme
Slides 8-9

6. What is mindfulness based cognitive therapy Acceptance and commitment therapy
Slide 10
7. What neurotransmitter is believed to be associated with GAD Do scientists believe it is this too much or too little of the neurotransmitter
GABA is low
8. What medications are currently used to treat GAD What other biological treatments can be used
Slides 12-14
9. What are the symptoms of phobias (both specific and social) How common are they Are they more common among men or women The young or the elderly How is frequency related to ethnicity
Slides 15-22 more common in women
10. How are specific and social phobias different

11. Be familiar with the different perspectives (Socio cultural, Psychodynamic, etc) of the etiology of phobias. Also be familiar with whether the research supports these perspectives.

12. Be especially familiar with the behavioral perspective. Know what classical conditioning is and how it might related to phobias, as well as modeling and stimulus generalization. What is preparedness
13. What is exposure treatment How are flooding and systematic desensitization different When might social skills training be implemented
14. What are the symptoms of panic disorder How common is it Is it more common among men or women The young or the elderly How is frequency related to ethnicity
Slides 23-27
15. Be familiar with the different perspectives (Socio cultural, Psychodynamic, etc) of the etiology of panic disorder. Also be familiar with whether the research supports these perspectives. Which phobia is commonly found with panic disorder
Slides 28-30
16. What parts of the brain are thought to be related to panic disorder What neurotransmitter
17. Which drugs seem to help control panic disorder What psychological treatments appear most helpful What are biological challenge tests Anxiety sensitivity
18. What are the symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) How common is it Is it more common among men or women The young or the elderly How is frequency related to ethnicity
Slides 31-34
19. Be familiar with the different perspectives (Socio cultural, Psychodynamic, etc) of the etiology of OCD. Also be familiar with whether the research supports these perspectives.
Slides 35-42
20. What treatments are the most effective in treating OCD
21. What is exposure Response prevention
22. What are the most common obsessions Compulsions
23. What neurotransmitters are thought to be associated with OCD What parts of the brain
24. Given a list of symptoms, you should be able to identify which anxiety disorder is being described.
Study Guide, Chapter 5-pages 133-148
Note: This is but a guide. There may be questions on the exam that are not covered in this guide. All lectures, video clips and the text are fair game for the exam.

25. What is the job of the sympathetic nervous system Be familiar with the different systems of the sympathetic nervous system and it effects.
Increase heartbeat and other changes in response to fear
26. During a stressful situation, what systems are activated What about a calm situation
Parasypathetic returns body processes back to normal
27. What are the 2 pathways associated with fear

28. What is the HPA pathway
Release of CRH from the hypothalamus is influenced by stress, physical activity, illness, by blood levels of cortisol and by the sleep/wake cycle (circadian rhythm). In healthy individuals, cortisol rises rapidly after wakening, reaching a peak within 30??“45 minutes. It then gradually falls over the day, rising again in late afternoon. Cortisol levels then fall in late evening, reaching a trough during the middle of the night. An abnormally flattened circadian cortisol cycle has been linked with chronic fatigue syndrome, insomnia and burnout.

29. What is the difference between state and trait anxiety
Trait vs. situational anxiety
30. What are the typical symptoms of PTSD How does it differ from acute stress disorder
Slide 3
31. What is reduced responsiveness
Detachment, loss of interest
32. How common is PTSD following a sexual assault (pg 138).

33. What country has the highest rape rates of the industrialized nations Does the average person who is raped receive testing for HIV Do they typically experience long-term health problems
U.S. Poor testing, more likely to have long term health problems.
34. What types of trauma are associated with acute stress disorder and PTSD Is there cultural variation among rape victims and symptoms following a rape

35. Know the biological/genetic factors, personality, childhood experiences, social support, multicultural factors and severity of trauma associated with acute stress disorder and PTSD.

36. What hormones are thought to be involved in PTSD

37. What treatments have received empirical support in the treatment of trauma related disorders

38. What is EMDR Why does it seem to be effective
39. Describe psychological debriefing. How effective is this type of intervention

Study Guide, Chapter 7
Note: This is but a guide. There may be questions on the exam that are not covered in this guide. All lectures, video clips and the text are fair game for the exam.

40. How is a major depressive episode described What are typical symptoms Who is at risk What is the typical age of onset How is this different from the average age of onset 20 years ago
41. What is unipolar depression
Depression with history of mania
42. How common is unipolar depression Are men or women more likely to receive this diagnosis
43. How are stress and depression related What is endogenous depression Exogenous depression
44. What is post partum depression How common are ???the baby blues??? How are these two different
45. What are the genetic data with regard to unipolar depression
Family pedigree and twins
46. What neurotransmitters are associated with unipolar depression
Low neropinephorin and serotonin
47. What is seasonal affective disorder What hormone has been linked to it What is the tx of choice

48. What areas of the brain appear to be important in unipolar depression
Amlaygada, hypoccampus
49. Be familiar with tx approaches from a biological perspective. What % of patients improve after ECT What is the mechanism behind its effectiveness
60-80%
50. What are MAO inhibitors What precaution must people using this class of drugs take
Anti-depressant, high blood pressure tyramine
51. What are tricyclics Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors How do scientists believe these work Are SSRIs more effective than tricyclics
Anti-depressant with three rings in molecular level
52. Read the ???first dibs on anti-depressant drugs??? box on page 202.

53. What is vagus nerve stimulation Transcranial magnetic stimulation Deep brain stimulation

54. How might a psychodynamic theorist explain unipolar depression How effective are these treatment approaches

55. Describe the behavioral model with regard to unipolar depression. What treatments does this approach offer

56. How does the cognitive model explain unipolar depression What is learned helplessness What is the cognitive triad How might a cognitive therapist treat unipolar depression

57. How effective is cognitive therapy in treating depression What about exercise as a treatment for unipolar depression

58. What is the attribution-helplessness theory Know your attributions (global, etc).

59. What is acceptance and commitment therapy

60. How might a sociocultural theorist explain unipolar depression What is Interpersonal Psychotherapy How effective is this type of therapy

61. What are some reasons why scientists believe depression is more common among women Discuss the artifact theory. What is rumination theory Life stress theory Lack of control theory

62. How do depressive sxs seem to vary across cultures (pg 216-7)

63. What is a manic episode

64. What is bipolar I disorder How is it different from bipolar II disorder
Bipolar II no manic episodes
65. What is a hypomanic episode
Distinguished from mania due to lack of psychotic symptoms
66. How common are bipolar disorders Are men or women more likely to receive this diagnosis

67. What is cyclothymic disorder
Hypomanic symptoms mild bipolar
68. What are the genetic data with regard to bipolar disorder

69. What neurotransmitters are associated with bipolar disorders How are sodium ions thought to be involved What to areas of the brain have been identified as important
Overactivity of norepinephrine
70. What treatments are typically used with bipolar disorders What are second messengers Discuss medicine noncompliance with regard to the bipolar disorders. How does lithium work
Chemical changes in neuron, mood stabalizer
71. What is the most common mood disorder How common is it for someone with a mood disorder NOT to improve